Current local: May 29, 2015, 5:57 p.m.

Virtual e-Text Archive of Indic Texts


In the absence of a [Thesaurus Linguae Graecae] or [Perseus Project]-style [collection of texts] for Sanskrit or the other languages of classical Indian studies, this page will begin an attempt to bring together in one location links to machine-readable files of texts in Indic languages, wherever they may be.

The organizing principles of this page are still far from clear! One point does stand out, however. In the longer run, all the texts below need to be encoded according to the guidelines of the [Text Encoding Intitiative]. See Peter Schreiner's encoding of the [Buddhacarita] for an important experimental example of applying the TEI guidelines to a Sanskrit text.

If you have a classical Indian text to contribute, or if you know of WWW links to texts which are not shown here, I would be grateful if you would [send me a note] with the information. Thank you.

A discussion of copyright in the INDOLOGY forum during late 1996 raised some interesting issues with regard to rights and privileges in the use of electronic texts. One of our members, Dr. Fco. Javier Martinez Garcia, kindly drew attention to the following two WEB sites, to which you are recommended for more information about copyright issues.

See also

  • [Copyright FAQ] prepared by the UK Arts and Humanities Data Service and the Technical Advisory Service for Images.

  • [Project Looking Forward, Final Report, Sketching the Future of Copyright in a Networked World] by College of William and Mary Law Professor Trotter Hardy.

    The US Copyright Office has published "Project Looking Forward: Final Report, Sketching the Future of Copyright in a Networked World" by College of William and Mary Law Professor Trotter Hardy, who conducted the project on contract with the Copyright Office during the latter half of 1996. It is available online (above link) and may be ordered in paper from the Government Printing Office for $23, stock number S/N 030-002-00191-8, from mid-August 1998.

e-Text repositories

Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit

  • [GRETIL - Goettingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages]

  • [INDOLOGY's own online texts]

    • Astavakragita

    • Bhagavadgita

    • Dandin's Dasakumaracarita (extracts)

    • Dhammapada

    • Mahabharata, Sabhaparvan (Van Nooten)

    • Mandukya Upanishad

    • Panini's Astadhyayi

    • Patanjali's Yogasutra

    • Prajnaparamitahrdayasutra

    • Rig Veda

    • Sankaracarya's Saundaryalahari

    • Tantrakhyayika

    • Vagbhata's Rasaratnasamuccaya (extracts)

    • Vatsyayana's Kamasutra

    • ... and several other texts.

    and contributed by the Kyoto scholars (originals at []):

    • Apastambadharmasutra

    • Baudhayanadharmasutra

    • Brhaspatismrti

    • Gautamadharmasutra

    • Katyayanasmrti

    • Kamasutra (19/9/1998)

    • Kautalyaarthasastra

    • Manusmrti

    • Naradasmrti

    • Parasarasmrti

    • Vaikhanasadharmasutra

    • Vasisthadharmasastra

    • Visnusmrti

    • Yajnavalkyasmrti

    • Varahamihira's Brhatsamhita

    • Asvaghosa's Buddhacarita

    and other texts.

  • [Hamburg University Centre for Tantric Studies - Śaiva and Buddhist e-texts]

    The CTS e-texts are digital text files of primary tantric sources, presented solely for the purpose of teaching, research or private study.

    CTS e-texts are prefaced with front matter referring to the sources used, crediting the author/editor, and recording date and version of input. They are presented as plain Unicode text with no markup, typographic embellishment, annotations or critical apparatus.

  • [Gaudiya Grantha Mandira - A Sanskrit Text Repository]

    This repository of texts is an effort to collect, edit, and make available important and often rare Sanskrit and Bengali texts that belong to the Caitanya Vaisnava tradition. It is for the use of any and all scholars of Sanskrit, Bengali, and the Caitanya Vaisnava tradition. It will eventually contain carefully edited and proofread editions of the whole corpus of Caitanya Vaisnava texts and many other important Sanskrit texts from other traditions and fields of study. The entire Gaudiya Grantha Mandira corpus of texts will eventually be made available on CD for a nominal fee.

  • [E-texts from the IIT Kanpur]

    A remarkable collection, which can be viewed in a wide range of Indian scripts, or romanization, converted into PDF, and downloaded. Not only the Gita and commentaries, but the upanisads, the full works of Sankara, the Yogasutrabhasya, and more (go to "see also").

  • [Sanskrit Fonts and Sanskrit Texts]

    Presented by Ulrich Stiehl. [Rgveda], [Yajurveda], [Bhagavatapurana], [Bhagavadgita], [Nalopakhyana], and a [reverse Sanskrit dictionary]. Searchable PDF files, using the downloadable ``[URW Palladio S]'' font.

  • [E-texts from Somadeva Vasudeva]

    Includes the following texts:

    Ajadapramatrsiddhi of Utpaladeva; Anuttaraprakasapañcasika of Adyanatha; Isvarapratyabhijñavrtti of Utpaladeva; Ekadasamukhahrayam* (Satapitaka); Kalavilasa of Ksemendra; Kalividambana of Nilakantha Diksita; Kavyadarsa of Dandin (1--2); Kubjikamatatantra; Ksanabhangasiddhi-Vyatirekatmika of Ratnakirti; Gunabhara Inscription; Caurapañcasika of Bilhana; Tattvopaplavasimhah of Jayarasi (partial); Navasahasankacarita of Padmagupta; Prajñatara of Nalanda*, three folios written by; Padataditaka of Syamilaka; Bhallatasataka; Bhavopahara of Cakrapaninatha with the Vivarana of Bhatta Ramyadeva; Bhulunda, 2 Inscriptions; Bhojadevaprasastayah; Mahakaravirayaga patala 1* (NGMPP); Mahamayurividyarajñi*, fragment (Satapitaka); Malinivijayottaratantra; List of 64 Tirthas with Siddhalingas* see scans for images; Vakyapadiya of Bhartrhari (1--3.7); Vatulanathasutravrtti of Anantasaktipada; Vinasikhatantra; Saktanandavijñana of Somananda; Sabarabhasya (partial); Sivastrotravali of Utpaladeva; Siladitya II copperplate of Gupta sam. 362; Samvitsiddhi of Yamuna; Sahrdayalila of Ruyyaka; Siyaka II Harasola copperplate (vi. sam. 1005); Stavacintamani of Bhattanarayana;

  • [The text archive of the Department of Indology, University of Zürich]

    Includes the Brahmapurana transcription by Peter Schreiner and Renata Shnen-Thieme. As well as being an important research resource, this is a model of good practice in the creation of electronic texts.

  • [Sanskrit Texts by Vedic Engineering]

    A large collection (almost 30 megabytes) of Sanskrit texts in machine-readable form. Includes independent versions of the Rigveda, Mahabharata, and Ramayana, as well as puranas, medical texts, upanishads, darshana texts, etc.

  • [Sanskrit Texts and Stotras]

    Made available by Dale Steinhauser. PDF files of many stotras and related texts in Sanskrit, in Devanagari script.

    (Name, Sanskrit/English, number of verses)

    • The 40 Areas of Vedic Literature S-E 40

    • Saraswati Stotram from the Padma Purana S-E 4

    • Saraswati Stotram S 10

    • Mahalakshmi Stotram from the Padma Purana S-E 9

    • Mahalakshmi Verse (Bhagavata Purana 8:8:8) S-E 1

    • The 32 Names of Durga S-E 6

    • Lalita Stortam by Shankaracharya S-E 6

    • Ganesh Astava S-E 3

    • Shiva Manasa Puja S 5

    • The Shiva Sutras with Translation by Laksman Joo S-E 77

    • Trotaka's Hymn to his Master Shankaracharya S-E 8

    • Mahavakyas S-E 7

    • The Shantis for the 108 Upanishads S-E 5

    • Pingala Chandas (Chapters 1-4) S 140

    • Bhagavad Gita (18 Chapters) S 700

    • 1000 Names of Vishnu (Vishnu Sahasranam) S 142

    • Stotram to the 9 Planets (Navagraha) S-E 12

    • Stotram to Jupiter (Brihaspati, Guru) S 6

    • Stotram to Rahu S 6

    • Stotram to Saturn (Shani) S 11

    • Stotram to Venus (Shukra) S 7

    • Stotram to Mars (Mangala) S 7

  • [TITUS: Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialen]

    Notices of several projects and people involved in Indo-european studies, as well as lists of texts in Sanskrit and other languages which have been put into machine-readable format. Many Indic texts are publicly accessible for searching and analysis via the innovative [WordCruncher Server].

  • [Gandharva Nagaram]

    Rome University "La Sapienza" Sanskrit Text Archive. Unfortunately, this website has gone away (2012). You can travel back in time to see what used to be there, by consulting the WayBack Machine, that offers snapshots of the past.


    • Kshemaraja : Pratyabhijnahridaya

    • Abhinavagupta: Paramarthasara,

    • Abhinavagupta: Paryantapanchashika,

    • Abhinavagupta: Bodhapanchadashika

    • Abhinavagupta: Bhairava-stava

    • Abhinavagupta: Anuttarashtika

    • Abhinavagupta: Krama-stotra

    • Vijnanabhairava

    • Paratrimshika

    • Spanda-karika

  • [Dharmakirti's works, available on the website of Dr. Motoi Ono]

    • Pramanavarttika

    • Pramanavarttikasvavrtti

    • Pramanaviniscaya

    • Nyayabindu

    • Hetubindu

    • Vadanyaya

    • Sambandhaparikza

    • Samtanantarasiddhi

  • [Middle Indo-Aryan studies Home Page]

    Internet Home Page for Middle Indo-Aryan studies, by Yumi Ousaka and Moriichi Yamazaki. Website disappeared in 2009. Link to past snapshots. The site provides the following five important Jain texts:

    • Dasaveyaliya,

    • Isibhasiyaim,

    • Ayaranga,

    • Suyagada and

    • Uttarajjhaya.

    For each of these text, the site gives the plain texts, metrical analysis, pada and word indexes, reverse word index to the Vinaya, etc.

  • [The Vedic Experience] by Raimon Panikkar. Online version of the full text. Includes translation and commentary on many Vedic hymns.

  • [Vedavid: Research Resource and Internet experiment] by John Gardner.

    Provides hypertexts of the

    • Rig Veda and the

    • Satapatha Brahmana,

    with many further links, ideas, and possibilities.

  • [The Pali Canon Online, Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project]

  • [The Pali Canon Online Database] (Formely at La Trobe University.)

    This is a database version of the Pali Canon (in Pali) based on the digitised text prepared by the Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project. The advantage of using this version of the Pali canon is that it makes it easy to search for individual words across all 20,946 pages at once and view the contexts in which they appear.

  • [The Pali Tipitaka] of the [Vipassana Research Institute], Igatpuri, Maharashtra.

    • Dhammapada in Pali.

  • [Pali Canon] with links to English translations. Not complete, but still substantial. From, by John Bullitt.

  • [The Kyoto Archive of Sanskrit texts]

    High-quality, machine-readable files of the following texts:

    • Kāmasūtra

    • Jyotsnikā

    • Aṣṭāṅgasaṃgraha

    • Bheḷasaṃhitā

    • Carakasaṃhitā

    • Suśrutasaṃhitā

    • Āpastambadharmasūtra

    • Arthaśāstra

    • Baudhāyanadharmasūtra

    • Bṛhaspatisūtra

    • Gautamadharmasūtra

    • Kātyāyanasmṛti

    • Manusmṛti

    • Nāradasmṛti

    • Parāśarasmṛti

    • Vaikhānasadharmasūtra

    • Vasiṣṭhadharmaśāstra

    • Viṣṇusmṛti

    • Yājñavalkyasmṛti

    • Āryabhaṭīya

    • Bījāgaṇita of Bhāskar

    • Bṛhajjātakam of Varāhamihira

    • Bṛhatsaṃhitā of Varāhamihira

    • Brahmaspuṭasiddhānta of Brahmagupta

    • Yogayātrā (Bṛhadyātrā) of Varāhamihira

    • Līlāvatī of Bhāskara II

    • Sūryasiddhānta

    • Ṭikanikayātrā of Varāhamihira

    • Vivāhapaṭala of Varāhamihira

    • Yogayātrā of Varāhamihira

    • Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna

    • Ramayana

    • Mahabharata

  • [John Smith's archive]

    • Ramayana

    • Mahabharata

    • Pabuji epic

  • [The Sanskrit Library]

    By Peter M. Scharf. Sanskrit texts presented with teaching aids.

  • [Muktabodha Indological Research Institute]

    The Muktabodha Indological Research Institute now has 29 searchable e-texts (14/7/2006). Some of these are editions prepared from manuscripts and are previously unpublished:

    • Devidvyardhasatika by Prabodhanatha a Kalikrama text edited by Mark S.G. Dyczkowski

    • Kalikulapancasatika (also called Devipancasatika) a Kalikrama text edited by Mark S.G. Dyczkowski

    • Kramasadbhava a Kalikrama text edited by Mark S.G. Dyczkowski

    • Kuloratnoddyota edited by Mark S.G. Dyczkowski

    • Mahanaya Prakasa by Arnasimha a Kalikrama text edited by Mark S.G. Dyczkowski

    • Spandakarika with Vrtti by Kallatabhatta Tippani and Vivrtti by Ramakantha edited by Mark S.G. Dyczkowski

    • Spandapradipika of Utpalabhagavata edited by Mark S.G. Dyczkowski

    • Srikhacakrapancakastotra by Jnananetranatha a Kalikrama text edited by Mark S.G. Dyczkowski

    • Cidgaganacandrika by Kalidasa

    • Isvarapratyabhijna Vimarsini by Abhinavagupta with the commentary Bhaskari by Bhaskara

    • Isvarapratyabhijna Vivrti Vimarsini by Abhinavagupta

    • Isvarasiddhi by Utpaladeva

    • Jnanakarika of the school of Matsyendranatha

    • Kamakalavilasa by Punyananda with the commentary cidvalli by Natanananda

    • Kaulajnananirnaya of the school of Matsyendranatha

    • Kularnava Tantra

    • Mrgendra Tantra

    • Netra Tantra with the commentary of Kshemaraja

    • Paramarthasara of Abhinavagupta with the commentary of Yogaraja

    • Parapravesika by Ksemaraja

    • Rudrayamala Tantra Uttara Khanda

    • Sambandhasiddhi by Utpaladeva

    • Sambapancasika with the commentary by Ksemaraja

    • Saradatilaka

    • Sataratnasamgraha

    • Sivadrsti of Somananda

    • Sivasutravarttikam of Bhaskara

    • Stavacintamani of Bhattanarayana with the commentary of Ksemaraja

    • Svacchanda Tantra the commentary of Kshemaraja

    • Tantraloka with the commentary of Jayaratha

  • [The Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon]

    In 2003, the University of the West, Los Angeles, under the generous sponsorship of Most Venerable Master Hsing Yun and guided by the initiative of Prof. Lewis Lancaster, began the Sanskrit Buddhist Canon Project (SBCP). The initial grant, covering the input of 50 Mahayana sutras, was completed in 2004.

    Our second phase, in 2005, covers the input of about 100 Shastra titles. The input of Shastras comprising the works of Acarya Nagarjuna, Arya Deva, Asanga, and Vasubandhu has already commenced, and will be completed by the end of 2006-7.

  • [Electronic Resources for Hindi and Other South Asian Languages: Department of Hindi, Osaka University of Foreign Studies]

    Electronic Texts - Medieval Hindi:

    • Tulsidas's Dohavali, prepared by Hiroko Nagasaki

    • Tulsidas's Kavitavali, prepared by Hiroko Nagasaki

    • Tulsidas's Gitavali, prepared by Hiroko Nagasaki

    • Tulsidas's Vinaya-Patrika, prepared by Hiroko Nagasaki

    • Tulsidas's Ramcaritmanas, prepared by Hiroko Nagasaki

    • Jaysi's Padmavat, prepared by Hiroko Nagasaki

    • Kutuban (Qutban)'s Miragavati (Mrigavati), prepared by Arlo Griffiths, Joris ter Linden, and Dick Plukker

    Electronic Texts - Sanskrit:

    • Kausika Sutra by Arlo Griffiths

    • Patanjali's Vyakarana-Mahabhasya by George Cardona

    • The Rg-Veda Padapatha by George Cardona

    Audio Archive - Sanskrit:

    • Recitation of the Satapatha-Brahmana in the Kanva recension, recorded by George Cardona

    • ...

  • [Vedic Literature in Sanskrit - Maharishi University of Management]

    A large collection of PDF files of Sanskrit texts typed in Devanagari script.
  • [Bussei Electronic Text Library - Young Buddhist Association of the University of Tokyo]

    From the description:
    `Bussei Electronic Text Library' was established by the students of the Young Buddhist Association of the University of Tokyo (Bussei) with the aim to share the e-texts of Indology and publications for scholarly purposes.

    As of May 2012, the archive contains downloadable machine-readable files of the following texts:

    • Nyāyabhāṣya
    • Sāṅkhyasaptati Māṭharavṛtti
    • Jayamaṅgalā
    • Gauḍapādabhāṣya
    • Vasunandi-śrāvakācāra
    • Ratnakaraṇḍakaśrāvakācāra of Samantabhadra & Ratnakaraṇḍakaśrāvakācāraṭīkā
    • of Prabhācandra
    • Tattvavaiśāradī of Vācaspatimiśra

Other e-text projects, including digital repositories

  • [GRETIL e-library]

    Catalogue of the "GRETIL e-library". Electronic documents of the "Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages" (GRETIL) at Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen. A collection of e-documents (books, articles) on Indological subjects and related fields, including writings relevant to the history of Indology.

  • [SARIT: Search and Retrieval of Indic Texts]

    SARIT displays Indological texts marked up according to Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) guidelines. It uses a modified version of PhiloLogic™, a platform developed by the ARTFL Project and Digital Library Development Center at the University of Chicago. PhiloLogic™ is widely deployed in the digital humanities as a full-text search, retrieval and analysis tool for large TEI document collections.

  • [Digital South Asia Library (DSAL)]

    The Digital South Asia Library provides digital materials for reference and research on South Asia to scholars, public officials, business leaders, and other users.

  • [Internet Archive :: Text Archive]

    The Internet Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit that was founded to build an Internet library, with the purpose of offering permanent access for researchers, historians, and scholars to historical collections that exist in digital format.

  • [Digital Library of India (DLI)]

    The mission is to create a portal for the Digital Library of India which will foster creativity and free access to all human knowledge. As a first step in realizing this mission, it is proposed to create the Digital Library with a free-to-read, searchable collection of one million books, predominantly in Indian languages, available to everyone over the Internet. This portal will also become an aggregator of all the knowledge and digital contents created by other digital library initiatives in India.

  • [Digital Himalaya]

    The Digital Himalaya project was conceived of by Professor Alan Macfarlane and Dr. Mark Turin as a strategy for archiving and making available valuable ethnographic materials from the Himalayan region.

  • [Tibetan and Himalayan Library (THL)]

    The Tibetan and Himalayan Library (THL) is a publisher of websites, information services, and networking facilities relating to the Tibetan plateau and southern Himalayan regions. THL promotes the integration of knowledge and community across the divides of academic disciplines, the historical and the contemporary, the religious...

  • [Muktabodha Digital Library]

    Digital Library: to preserve rare Sanskrit manuscripts and texts in multiple digital formats, and make them accessible for study worldwide through our website. The aim is to secure for future generations first the core texts of Kashmir Shaivism, and then in ever widening circles to secure those texts that form the streams or environment from which Kashmir Shaivism grew and was synthesized. These include the Kaula-Trika, Saiva-Siddhanta, Pancaratra, and Natha Yoga schools.

  • [Sanskrit Documents List]

    A collection of Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, and other Indic texts in transliteration and also as PostScript files displaying Devanagari font (best with GhostView). Includes several stotras, upanisads, Brahmasutra extracts, subhasitas, etc.

  • [The Stotra Page] by Shrisha Rao.

    Includes bitmap images of several Dvaita stotras, some transliterations, and some audio files.

  • [The Rigveda: Metrically Restored Text (Karen Thomson and Jonathan Slocum)]

    This online text of the Rigveda derives from the highly important Rig Veda: a Metrically Restored Text, by Barend A. van Nooten and Gary B. Holland, published in 1994 by Harvard University Press; van Nooten and Holland's edition, as the first attempt to present the poems in their entirety in the poetic form in which they were composed, constituted a watershed in Rigvedic scholarship, but it has been out of print for several years.

  • [JAIN eLibrary (JAINA Education Committee, Federation of Jain Associations in North America)]

    To protect, preserve, and disseminate the ancient and contemporary Jain literature, the Education Committee of Federation of JAINA, North America, has launched a JAINA eLibrary project. Under this project the Jain literature will be converted electronically into eBooks (pdf files) and made available via the website to the readers who are interested in Jain religion and its philosophy. ... The eLibrary contains Shvetämbar Ägams, Digambar Shästras, Four Anuyogas, Commentary literature, Präkrit & Sanskrit literature and ancient and modern literature representing all aspects of Jainism. ...

Individual texts presented by scholars

  • [Venisamhara by Bhattanarayana] XML file encoded using TEI guidelines by Yves Codet. Includes accented scholarly transliteration and Devanagari, using Unicode. A model of how to proceed with e-texts.

  • [DharmaCauryaRasaayana]

    PDF file. The Nagari (critical) text of the Dharmacauryarasayana, as printed in the Milano edition, 2001. The publisher, Edizioni Ariele, sends his blessings for putting this file online in Indology. Presented by Alex Passi.

  • [An abridged version of VaalmIki's SrImadraamaayaNaM]

    By G.S.S. Murthy.

  • [Patanjali's Yogasutras]

    In many languages and interpretations.

  • [Mahabharata-tatparya-nirnaya]

    by Anandatirtha. A PDF file. (Embedded bitmap fonts; poor for screen reading, but good for printout.)

  • [Archive of Sanskrit & Old Javanese texts]

    Texts encoded in XML (non-TEI) and presented in html with xhtml1-transitional.dtd. The e-texts note that they are not proofread. Includes a cumulative pāda index of Sanskrit Śaiva verses, Gaṇapatitattva, Mahājñāna, Tattvajñāna, Vṛhaspatitattva, and Saṅ Hyaṅ Kamahāyānikan.


  • [Tamil Heritage Foundation]

    Also associated with and an [email group (e-suvadi)] that acts like a bulletin board.

  • [The Electronic Tamil Library]

    The Tamil Electronic Library offers information on the a wide miscellany of topics, from texts on history, through language, numerals, babys' names, magazine titles, to free software.

  • [Project Madurai]

    Early this year a group of Tamil volunteers coming from four corners of the world joined together to launch an open, world-wide initiative called Project Madurai. This project is devoted to preparing electronic texts of Tamil literary works, and archiving them in public-access websites and distributing them free on the internet. The Project Madurai web site gives information on e-texts already released (such as the thirukkuRaL of thiruvaLLuvar), e-texts in preparation, target works, volunteers involved, etc.


Electronic Books and Journals

Last modified: Wed Aug 7 23:28:02 2013

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